Any area dominated by the presence of large trees is a forest. Other plants consist largely of ferns, which thrive in the shady environment provided by the trees.
Large animals: Moa, boar, and kuri are all prominent in forests.
Small animals: Most species of small bird can be found in forests, dwelling in the trees. Kiwi and kakapo can be found on the ground, as can small lizards.
Bush, also called scrubland or shrubland, is covered in smaller plant species, ranging from less than a meter to five meters in height, with most being 1-2m. Ferns flaxes, and many 'undergrowth' plants are found in bush. Usually, a human can move through bush without substantial effort, but may be hindered by particularly dense patches.
Large animals: Moa and boar are prominent in forests. Kuri are present, but not in great numbers.
Small animals: Small birds may live among some of the more substantial plants, but there are much less of them than in forests. Kiwi, Kakapo, and rats are common, while lizards are present but rare.
Swamps are characterised by high levels of moisture; ponds and streams are ubiquitous, and the air is extremely humid. This limits the presence of trees to areas with enough solid ground to support them, and allows the proliferation of reeds and water based plants.
Large animals: Moa are rarely seen in swamps, often where the swamp borders more favourable areas. Crocodiles and giant crabs are relatively common, although neither are typically seen in great numbers.
Small animals: Smaller birds are uncommon in swamps. However, insects are incredibly populous, which in turn allows bat populations to flourish. Pukeko, takahe, kaki, and ducks are common, as are many species of lizard and frog.
Grasslands are blanketed by grassy plants. Clumps of bushy plants and flax can also be found, along with the occasional stand of trees, but by and large the land is dominated by grasses.
Large animals: Some moa and kuri can be found in grasslands, but the ecosystem does not much lend itself to supporting large creatures.
Small animals: Small birds populate the sparse trees and bushes. Rats, kakapo, and kiwi are all common, as are lizards.
Rocky and cold, alpine ecosystems tend to have tough, sparse vegetation. Scraggly trees are present but uncommon, with small patches of bushes, grasses, and flax being the most common plants.
Large animals: Kuri are present, although not exactly common. Goats can be found in Motunui's singular alpine region.
Small animals: Seabirds such as kingfishers and albatrosses are common closer to the coast, while kea are often found further inland. Lizards, most notably the tuatara, are found here.
While technically not a unique environment, the area known as Ngarohere does contain unique flora and fauna, the most prominent being the infamous Taniwha that has scared humanity away from Ngarohere for untold generations. Ngarohere is entirely forest, and while some novel species exist, the general arrangement of plants is like any other.
Large animals: Moa, kuri, and boar all live within Ngarohere. Some reports exist of gigantic, dog sized weta, but these have not been properly documented if they exist at all. The Taniwha, which is synonymous with the Ngarohere, inhabit the forest. In fact, their presence or absence is often considered when deciding whether a patch of forest is within Ngarohere or not. Any number of other species may live within the depths of Ngarohere, which have remained entirely unexplored by humans.
Small animals: Many species of small bird, kiwi, kakapo, and small lizards can be found within Ngarohere; their distribution is nearly identical to normal forests, barring novel species.